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- Enlightenment Wars: Some Reflections on 'Enlightenment Now,' One Year Later - Quillette
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In Stock. Book Description Palgrave Macmillan. Seller Inventory ING All items inspected and guaranteed. All Orders Dispatched from the UK within one working day. Established business with excellent service record. Prices and offers may vary in store. This book investigates the contested ways in which eighteenth-century German philosophers, scientists, poets, and dramatists perceived and represented China and Africa from to Tautz demonstrates in compelling ways that reading China allowed for the integration of cultural difference into Enlightenment universalism, whereas seeing Africa exposed irreducible differences that undermined any claims of universality.
By working through the case of eighteenth-century Germany and Europe, the book adds an important cross-cultural and historical dimension to questions relevant to our world today. About The Author.
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Tell Us Where You Are:. Preview Your Review. A landmark study by Stanford scientists examined the question of human diversity by looking at the distribution across seven major geographical regions of 4, alleles. For instance, all humans have the same genes that code for hair: the different alleles are why hair comes in all types of colors and textures.
The observation that the vast majority of the alleles were shared over multiple regions, or even throughout the entire world, points to the fundamental similarity of all people around the world—an idea that has been supported by many other studies Figure 1B. However, the Stanford study found that only 7. In fact, there is ample variation within races Figure 1B. Ultimately, there is so much ambiguity between the races, and so much variation within them, that two people of European descent may be more genetically similar to an Asian person than they are to each other Figure 2.
The divisions between races are doubtlessly blurred, but does this necessarily mean that race is a myth —a mere social construct and biologically meaningless? As with other race-related questions, the answer is multi-dimensional and may well depend on whom you ask. In the biological and social sciences, the consensus is clear: race is a social construct , not a biological attribute. However, even if scientists agree that race is, at most, a social construct , any cursory search of the internet reveals that the broader public is not convinced of this. After all, if an Asian person looks so different from a European, how could they not be from distinct groups?
The popular classifications of race are based chiefly on skin color, with other relevant features including height, eyes, and hair. Though these physical differences may appear, on a superficial level, to be very dramatic, they are determined by only a minute portion of the genome: we as a species have been estimated to share The few differences that do exist reflect differences in environments and external factors, not core biology. Importantly, the evolution of skin color occurred independently, and did not influence other traits such as mental abilities and behavior.
Ultimately, while there certainly are some biological differences between different populations, these differences are few and superficial. The traits that we do share are far more profound. Despite the scientific consensus that humanity is more alike than unlike, the long history of racism is a somber reminder that throughout human history, a mere 0.
The advances in human genetics and the evidence of negligible differences between races might be expected to halt racist arguments. But, in fact, genetics has been used to further racist and ethnocentric arguments—as in the case of the alt-right , which promotes far-right ideologies, including white nationalism and anti-Semitism.
Those who disagree with alt-right ideologies may assume that the alt-right is merely spewing ignorant nonsense. This is certainly true for some of the alt-right. What is perhaps a more difficult truth is that many of the alt-right do, in fact, understand biology and genetics to an impressive extent, even if this understanding is flawed. They are similarly correct that Neanderthals had larger skulls than humans. Based on these facts, some within the alt-right have claimed that Europeans and Asians have superior intelligence because they have inherited larger brains from their Neanderthal ancestors.
However, this claim ignores that while there is evidence for the effect of Neanderthal DNA on certain traits , there has been no evidence for its effect on intelligence. Furthermore, scientific research indicates that the Neanderthals were not necessarily more intelligent simply because they had larger skulls.
Unsurprisingly, the alt-right tends cherry-pick the ideas that align with their preconceived notions of racial hierarchies, ignoring the broader context of the field of human genetics. Just as the alt-right is no longer an easily dismissed fringe group, their arguments have some factual basis, and cannot be swept aside as the babbling of the scientific illiterate.
Mounting scientific evidence has shown that humans are fundamentally more similar than different from each other. Nonetheless, racism has persisted. Scientific findings are often ignored, or otherwise actively misinterpreted and misused to further racist agendas of extreme political groups.
Opponents of these forces must, through their own education and awareness, combat these misleading interpretations and representations of scientific findings. The genome contains powerful insights about our biology that could unite us as a species, but which could also be dangerous and divisive if used without understanding. As we look forward to and onwards, it becomes ever more important to understand what our DNA says about what it means to be human. Vivian Chou is a Ph.
I totally agree with your premise about race. Scientist using the term ancestry instead of race; kudos to them, if only the general public would pick up on that. Unfortunately to many of us have beliefs that are inconsistent with scientific theory and that only clouds our true understanding of ancestry and the journey our species took to populate the world.
Exactly so what makes this true they said we all have a black gene now that dna is there and many European have tests that show not one bit not even The expression of alleles- such as brown eyes, brown skin, does not a separate race make. Call yourself what you want. It will never be biological tho.
First of all, if you know how dna works… the dna Im one human body could stretch back from here to the sun back and forth many times over. Humans who left Africa bred with others outside of Africa such as the Neanderthals.
Enlightenment Wars: Some Reflections on 'Enlightenment Now,' One Year Later - Quillette
Also mixing is more genetically sound and proper biologically speaking, it can breed out defects and diseases and also improves genetic fitness with more mutations to draw from. Arm yourself with intelligence. Evidence points to the fact that our nomenclature needs another level. Is a blackbird and a redwing blackbird the same species? Skin color is. The classical definition of a species is a group of organisms whose members are able to breed with one another and produce viable offspring, which clearly applies to all humans regardless of skin color. Additionally, I feel that you have latched on to one trait, skin color, to lend support to your point of view, but why that particular trait?
Why not eye color? Humans have many different traits that have evolved over time to create disparities and visible difference between various groups, but we are all different flavors of the same design, none better than another. No other races behaves in the same way as carcasuons mixed with Neanderthals. Most other races are not fearful and hateful of other people, almost seemingly on a genetic level. Most races are curious or interested in different people yet white people seem to be scared or threatened by what is different. The only explanation of this unique behavior in white people, is that they are mixed with a primitive type of hominid that makes them way more susceptible to hate and fear.
Kind of like what predatory animals do with other predatory species for competitive reasons. Early humans in Europe probably befriended and exploited other types of hominid and then killed off the Neanderthals only keeping the more cooperative Neanderthals, which they bred out of existence. The remaining neanderthals were probably slaves until bread out of assistance. They take what other people have and build upon it, much like their ancestors probably did to other types of humans, this behavior has never left them.
Donald Trump knows how to whip up those primitive attributes of early man and neanderthal in white people. Human intelligence has more to do with environment, resources and access to good education. Western Europeans are unique amongst other societies in their level of interest in outside cultures. They are the only group of humans that have taken the culture artifacts of other human societies, studied them, and put them in museums given them value!
Most of other human societies destroy the artifacts of their rivals.