- I1 Introduction
- Pdf Annual Review Of Hydrocephalus Volume 6 1988
- Pdf Annual Review Of Hydrocephalus Volume 6 1988
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The incidence of pseudotumor cerebri: Population studies in owa and Louisiana.
Pseudotumor cerebri: Incidence and pattern in North-Eastern Libya. Eur Neurol ; Symptoms and disease associations in idiopathic intracranial hypertension pseudotumor cerebri : A case-control study. Neurology ; The search for causes of idiopathic intracranial hypertension.
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Clinical course and prognosis of pseudotumor cerebri: A prospective study of 24 patients. Acta Neurol Scand ; Idiopathic intracranial hypertension associated with tetracycline use in fraternal twins: Case reports and review. Intracranial hypertension and tetracycline therapy.
Am J Ophthalmol ; Lumboperitoneal shunt for the treatment of pseudotumor cerebri. Wall M, George D. A prospective study of 50 patients. Brain ; Transient oculomotor paralysis in pseudotumor cerebri. Trochlear nerve palsy as a false localizing sign. Ann Ophthalmol ; Chari C, Rao NS. Benign intracranial hypertension - its unusual manifestations. Headache ; Idiopathic intracranial hypertension and seventh nerve palsy. Smith JL.
Whence pseudotumor cerebri? Pseudotumor cerebri. Ann Intern Med ; Increased intracraial pressure and the cerebrospinal fluid spaces. Ventricular volume regulation: A mathematical model and computer simulation. Pediatr Neurosci ; Brain swelling of unknown cause. Brain water accumulation in pseudotumor cerebri demonstrated by MR imaging of brain water self-diffusion.
Acta Neurochir Suppl Wein. Fishman RA. Pathophysiology of pseudotumor. Ann Neurol ; Cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in pseudotumor cerebri. Disorders of intracranial pressure: Hydrocephalus, brain edema, pseudotumor, intracranial hypertension and related disorders. In: Cerebrospinal fluid in diseases of the nervous system.
Pdf Annual Review Of Hydrocephalus Volume 6 1988
Philadelphia: WB Saunders Increased cerebral blood volume in benign intracranial hypertension. Neurology ;25; Pseudotumor cerebri induced by vitamin A combined with minocycline. Lee AG. Pseudotumor cerebri after treatment with tetracycline and isotretinoin for acne. Cutis ; Pseudotumor cerebri induced by minocycline treatment for acne vulgaris. Shija reporting paediatric surgery in Dar es Salaam, compared data for Edinburgh in , predicting that Dar es Salaam would take years to reach the situation of Edinburgh in Among consecutive paediatric admissions, Sept.
This difference of approach arises partly from the normal progressive development of a field of investigation during 23 years from to , toward more rigorous measurements that are independent of individual know-how and expertise.
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Nunn , 84, notes a negative review of another earlier hydrocephalus diagnosis. Considering the high early mortality out of skeletons, 80 were adult, 44 or 45 died in their first year, 23 or 24 in their second year, and 30 or 31 between 2 and 6 years, pp. The edition of Gates refers vol I: to work by [Dimitrii] Shamburov, and on p.
Work by this author can be found under: Shamburov; Schamburov; Schamburow. The latter reference is not given in full, but presumably is the paper mentioned above.
Pdf Annual Review Of Hydrocephalus Volume 6 1988
Shamburov had continued publishing in Russian, e. The various types of failure to close the spinal column are regarded as aspects of the status dysraphicus General survey and reassessment of the problem. Both papers have brief discussion of the contribution of environmental and genetic factors. How Ferembach used her sources and how much she understood about spina bifida is pertinent because she also showed some uncertainty in interpreting the evidence, in terms of ideas about spina bifida that were available in the s and early s, using the Latin, English or French medical terminology then current.
Brailsford See also Saluja These fields of knowledge may have been less familiar to Ferembach, whose D. Efforts to arrest the hydrocephalic expansion and perhaps shrink the cranium back to an acceptable size, by different kinds of plaster or ointment, were among the treatment suggestions c. Such efforts to contain or compress the skull, by shrinking ointment or by bandaging, may or may not have any scientifically measurable efficacy or risk.
This was founded on an admittedly modest experience base, i. Neuroendoscopy thus remained under some cloud, while use of ventricular shunts gathered strength from the early s onward and revolutionized hydrocephalus treatment. Li et al. He argues for prioritising ETV in developing countries where hydrocephalus is more often infection based, where monitoring of shunts is harder, and families face more obstacles in returning to hospital. There is worldwide interest in assessing costs and benefits of alternative procedures, yet comparisons across sharply different economic environments are seldom straightforward.
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For example, Garton et al. These advanced scanners have been standard equipment for years in big western hospitals, and their capital and operating costs per patient or procedure are calculated across large numbers and a significant time period. In much of Africa, such equipment was not standard in , a situation unlikely to have changed in six years Kalangu ; nor are its peripheral and indirect costs part of normal working budgets.
The full costs of imaging equipment, and of trained staff and peripherals, cannot reasonably be loaded onto local ETV cost analysis; yet it is necessary to consider what is the minimum equipment, plant and staff capacity reasonably needed for any particular operation, and to know whether in actual fact hospitals are able to make such capital investment and recurrent expenditure. For shunt surgery, the costs are more clearly known across Africa.
Even the modest cost c. Oneko et al. In infancy the head has more capacity to expand than it does later when the cranial parts knit together firmly. Hydrocephalic swelling may also spontaneously arrest, without medical or surgical attention. Through 20 years, 57 children did undergo surgical operations, 26 Among the unoperated children, 81 The original papers must be read closely for details of age distribution. About a third of the survivors were of normal intelligence, some being talented, and were being educated.
An observer familiar with the socio-medical opportunities and hazards for disabled East African infants and children has pointed out an additional problem, even where hydrocephalus surgery has been successful. Physicians seem reluctant to prescribe treatment for the ordinary, incidental ailments of such children, once they know the child has undergone brain surgery. The child is now seen as requiring specialist examination and care indefinitely for everything -- whether or not these are available and affordable A.
Zambaldo, personal communication. French and Belgian efforts in this direction were contrasted favourably with British approaches by discussants with Paterson With massive urbanisation and the reappraisal of socialist ideologies, some large populations, such as those in China, allowed their PHC systems to be overtaken by strategies with a quite different economic basis.
Advanced telecommunications can now link community health workers and local hospitals, or local with specialist centres, potentially giving rapid access to expert guidance at distance, in countries that are materially poor but have prioritised telecomms over for example jet fighters. Flint gives a recent review of materials. This is an extension, with considerable difficulty, of similar work, partly published, on disability among belief systems of the Middle East, South Asia and East Asia, now reviewing about items see J.
Neither item is a comprehensive review of literature, leaving aside the question whether the compiler has understood what the authors were writing, or whether the authors understood the beliefs they were writing about or mentioned in passing. The annotated bibliographies are an attempt to engage seriously with some of the range of beliefs connected with disability, in Asia, the Middle East and Africa.
However, Dettwyler pointed out that survival is evidence only of survival. One woman survived severe injuries and her bones healed, which implied some basic level of care and feeding by others over a significant period, more than 10, years ago. Yet reports still exist in modern times of small, dwindling populations of Africans in particular ecological niches, slightly reminiscent of the Taforalt folk, suffering in common the disabling consequence of probable dietary deficiency.
Fuchs et al. Dunston cited data that there were more than 14, such people in South Africa. Huys Yet is salutary to recognise that a different poverty may still afflict the person with these conditions in situations of affluence. Amidst great familial affluence, technology and modern services, the young girl can clearly be seen to experience significant poverty of personhood, relationship and dignity , apparently being treated by her wealthy parents mainly as a sackful of trouble and nuisance. Her physical care was repeatedly passed between the family, hospital medical staff expatriates of many countries , and the Sri Lankan maid who did most of the home care, i.
Her own views and wishes slowly began to be heard as she moved toward teenage years. This involves far more than an increased use of information media.